Flatfoot (pes planus), commonly called flat feet, is a relatively common foot deformity. A flat foot is defined by the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot where it contacts or nearly contacts the ground. The arch connects the forefoot and hindfoot and is formed of elastic ligaments, tendons, and fascia. Its function is to store mechanical energy within the stretched elastic ligaments during the gait cycle. A flat foot is asymptomatic but can alter the biomechanics of the lower limbs and lumbar spine. There are four types of flat feet: vertical talus, fallen arch, and rigid and flexible flat feet.
Treatment or management
1. Children with flat feet do not require treatment. However, foot orthotics are used to relieve pain secondary to flat feet. Doctors recommend surgery for only rigid flat feet.
1. Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
2. Doctors recommend adequate rest as the first resort. In addition, NSAIDs can also help with the pain.
3. Counseling for Obesity: Obese persons with flat feet should be encouraged to lose weight as the body weight applies more pressure leading to an elevated burden on the feet.
4. Foot orthotics: Doctors commonly recommend proper shoes that ease the gait cycle. In cases wherein the footwear does not help. Orthotics are devices used to influence the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system. Various orthotics can correct secondary deformities or pains due to flat feet.
5. Surgery: For patients that are resistant to the above treatment options, surgery is the last resort. Flat feet reconstruction is performed to repair ligaments, tendons, and bone structure which leads to reshaping the feet.
Midfoot, heel, lower leg, knee, hip, and or back pain,In advanced cases, altered gait patterns including toe drift
Proper shoe gear,Over-the-counter inserts,Custom functional orthotics,Bracing,Casting/immobilization,Physical therapy,NSAIDs,Weight loss,Changes in activities,Surgery